The Shaykh, al-Faqīh, Abū al-Qāsim ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Saʿīd al-Anṣārī al-Bukhārī informed us that it was read upon him in the year 434AH in the city of Makkah – may Allāh protect it – that Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdullāh ibn Musāfir said, Abū Bakr ibn Khalif ibn ʿUmar ibn Khalif ibn al-Hamadanī informed us, that Abū al-Ḥasan ibn Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn Azmah relayed, that Abū al-Ḥasan ibn ʿAlī al-Ṭanāfisī conveyed to us that Khalif ibn Muḥammad al-Qaṭwānī said: ʿAlī ibn Ṣāliḥ informed us of a discussion which took place between a Rāfiḍhī and Jaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Ṣādiq;
Rāfīḍhī: May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon you. Son1 of the Messenger of Allah, who is the best from among the people after the Messenger of Allah?
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīq.
Rāfīḍhī: And what is your proof for that?
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: The proof is the saying of Allah ﷻ;
إِلَّا تَنصُرُوهُ فَقَدْ نَصَرَهُ اللَّهُ إِذْ أَخْرَجَهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ثَانِيَ اثْنَيْنِ إِذْ هُمَا فِي الْغَارِ إِذْ يَقُولُ لِصَاحِبِهِ لَا تَحْزَنْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَنَا ۖ فَأَنزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَيْهِ وَأَيَّدَهُ بِجُنُودٍ لَّمْ تَرَوْهَا وَجَعَلَ كَلِمَةَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا السُّفْلَىٰ ۗ وَكَلِمَةُ اللَّهِ هِيَ الْعُلْيَا ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ
“If you help him (Muḥammad) not (it does not matter), for Allah did indeed help him when the disbelievers drove him out, the second of two, when they (Muḥammad and Abū Bakr were in the cave), and he said to his companion (Abū Bakr): ‘Be not sad (or afraid), surely Allah is with us.’ Then Allāh sent down His Sakīnah (calmness, tranquility, peace) upon him, and strengthened him with forces (angels) which you saw not, and made the word of those who disbelieved the lowermost, while the Word of Allāh became the uppermost, and Allāh is All-Mighty, All-Wise.” [Q 9:40]
Who is better than the two whom Allah ﷻ has praised? Could there be anyone better than Abū Bakr except the Messenger of Allah ﷺ?
Rāfīḍhī: Well surely ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib slept in the bed of the Prophet ﷺ without fear or worry.
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: As did Abū Bakr, he was with the Prophet ﷺ without fear or worry.
Rāfīḍhī: But Allah says the opposite of what you say!
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: And what has Allah ﷻ said?
Rāfīḍhī: Allah ﷻ said; “…and he said to his companion; ‘Be not sad (or afraid), surely Allāh is with us’” [Q 9:40] – is this not fearful anxiety?
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: No, because grievance is neither considered worry nor fear. Abū Bakr was grieving lest the Prophet be killed, and he would be censured from the religion of Allah; so he was grieving over the religion of Allah ﷻ and the Prophet of Allah, his grievance was not for himself. And how could that not be the case when he was bitten more than a hundred times [for the sake of Allah and His Prophet] and yet did not make a sound!?
إِنَّمَا وَلِيُّكُمُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ رَاكِعُونَ
Allah has said; “Verily, your Walī (Protector or Helper) is none other than Allāh, His Messenger, and the believers, – those who perform al-Ṣalāt (Iqāmat al-Ṣalāt), and give Zakāt, and they are Rākīʿūn (those who bow down or submit themselves with obedience to Allah in prayer).” [Q 5:55]
This was revealed concerning ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib who gave his ring in charity when he was bowing [in prayer] to which the Prophet ﷺ said; “All praise be to Allāh Who has made [this verse] about me and my family.”2
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: The verse which precedes it in the same chapter is even greater! Allah said;
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَن يَرْتَدَّ مِنكُمْ عَن دِينِهِ فَسَوْفَ يَأْتِي اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ يُحِبُّهُمْ وَيُحِبُّونَهُ
“O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his religion (Islām), Allah will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him” [Q 5:54]
The apostasy3 occurred after the death of the Prophet. The Arabs apostated after the death of the Prophet, and so the non-Muslims gathered in Naharwand and said; ‘The man that they used to seek aid from has died’ – meaning the Prophet. ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb had even said: ‘Accept from them the fact that they pray and ignore the issue of them not paying the Zakāt’, to which Abū Bakr replied; ‘By Allāh, if they withhold from me a young goat that they used to give to the Messenger of Allah , I will fight them even if they gathered multiple rocks, bricks, throws, trees, jinns and people; I will fight them alone.’ – And this verse had favoured Abū Bakr.
Rāfīḍhī: Allah has said;
الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ أَمْوَالَهُم بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ سِرًّا وَعَلَانِيَةً فَلَهُمْ أَجْرُهُمْ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
“And those who spend their wealth day and night, secretly and publicly.” [Q 2:274]
This was revealed about ʿAlī. He used to have four dirhams from which he would spend in charity; one at night, one during the day, one in secret and one in public, and so this verse was revealed concerning him.
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: There is something better than this mentioned about Abū Bakr in the Qurʾān, Allah says:
وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَىٰ
“By the night as it envelops”
Allah swore an oath [and then said],
وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّىٰ ان سعيكم لشتى فَأَمَّا مَنْ أَعْطَىٰ وَاتَّقَىٰ وَصَدَّقَ بِالْحُسْنَىٰ فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ لِلْيُسْرَىٰ
“And [by] the day as it appears in brightness…Certainly, your efforts and deeds are diverse; as for he who gives (in charity) and keeps his duty to Allah and fears Him, And believes in the best reward, We will make smooth for him the path of ease” – meaning Abū Bakr
وَسَيُجَنَّبُهَا الْأَتْقَى الَّذِي يُؤْتِي مَالَهُ يَتَزَكَّىٰ وَمَا لِأَحَدٍ عِندَهُ مِن نِّعْمَةٍ تُجْزَىٰ إِلَّا ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ رَبِّهِ الْأَعْلَىٰ وَلَسَوْفَ يَرْضَىٰ
“He who spends his wealth for increase in self-purification, and who has (in mind) no favour from anyone, except to seek the Countenance of his Lord, the Most High; he surely will be pleased (when he enters Paradise).” [Q 92 1-21] – referring to Abū Bakr.
He spent forty thousand dirhams of his wealth upon the Messenger of Allah until he exhausted all of his wealth. Jibrīl descended and said ‘Allah conveys His Salām to Abū Bakr, and asks him if he is happy or unhappy about his poverty for His sake?” When the Prophet ﷺ asked Abū Bakr, he began to cry and said: “Me, unhappy with my Lord? No, I am pleased with my Lord! No, I am pleased with my Lord! No, I am pleased with my Lord!” And Allah promised to make him pleased.4
Rāfīḍhī: Allah said:
أَجَعَلْتُمْ سِقَايَةَ الْحَاجِّ وَعِمَارَةَ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ كَمَنْ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَجَاهَدَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۚ لَا يَسْتَوُونَ عِندَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ
“Do you consider the providing of drinking water to the pilgrims and the maintenance of al-Masjid al-Ḥarām (at Makkah) as equal to the worth of those who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and strive hard and fight in the Cause of Allah? They are not equal before Allah. And Allah guides not those people who are the Ẓālimūn (polytheists and wrong-doers).” [Q 9:19] – This was revealed about ʿAlī.
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: There is also something similar said about Abū Bakr in the Qurʾān. Allah said;
لَا يَسْتَوِي مِنكُم مَّنْ أَنفَقَ مِن قَبْلِ الْفَتْحِ وَقَاتَلَ ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ أَعْظَمُ دَرَجَةً مِّنَ الَّذِينَ أَنفَقُوا مِن بَعْدُ وَقَاتَلُو
“Not equal among you are those who spent and fought before the conquering (of Makkah with those among you who did so later). Such are higher in degree5 than those who spent and fought afterwards.” [Q 57:10]
Abū Bakr was the first to spend in charity upon the Messenger of Allah. He was the first to fight and the first to strive. The polytheists assaulted the Prophet ﷺ until he bled. When news of this reached Abū Bakr, he turned towards the path to Makkah and said; “Woe to you! Would you kill a man because he says my Lord is Allah when he has brought you proof from your Lord?” So they left the Prophet and took to assaulting Abū Bakr so badly that his nose could not be distinguished from his face. He was the first to wage jihād for the sake of Allah, and the first to fight alongside the Prophet. He was the first to spend his wealth in charity, and it has been reported that the Prophet ﷺ said; “No wealth has benefited me like the wealth of Abū Bakr.”
Rāfīḍhī: ʿAlī has never ever associated partners with Allah.
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: Certainty Allah has praised Abū Bakr; a praise that has sufficed him from everything. Allah said,
وَالَّذِي جَاءَ بِالصِّدْقِ وَصَدَّقَ بِهِ ۙ أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُتَّقُونَ
“And he (Muḥammad) who has brought the truth and those who believed therein.” [Q 39:33]
– meaning Abū Bakr. Everyone said to the Prophet ﷺ, ‘You have lied’ except Abū Bakr, he said ‘You have spoken the truth.’ So this verse was revealed about him, the verse of truthfulness.
Rāfīḍhī: Loving ʿAlī has been made mandatory in the Qurʾān, Allah said;
قُل لَّا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا إِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبَىٰ
“No reward do I ask of you for this (except to be kind to me for my kinship with you.” [Q 39:33]
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: Likewise, for Abū Bakr. Allah said;
وَالَّذِينَ جَاءُوا مِن بَعْدِهِمْ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِالْإِيمَانِ وَلَا تَجْعَلْ فِي قُلُوبِنَا غِلًّا لِّلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ
“And those who came after them say: ‘Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in faith, and put not in our hearts any hatred against those who have believed. Our Lord! You are indeed full of kindness, Most Merciful.” [Q 42:23}
Abū Bakr is from those who proceeded in faith. So seeking forgiveness for him and loving him is mandatory whilst hating him is disbelief.
Rāfīḍhī: The Prophet said; “Al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥussain are the leaders of the youth in Paradise, and their father is better than them.”
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: Abū Bakr is better in the sight of Allah ﷻ than that. My father informed me, that my grandfather informed him, that ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib said; “I was alone with the Prophet ﷺ when Abū Bakr and ʿUmar suddenly came by. The Prophet said; ‘ʿAlī! Abū Bakr and ʿUmar are the masters of the young and mature men of paradise from those who came before and died, and of those who are to come except the Messengers and Prophets. Do not inform them of this as long as they are alive.’ So I did not inform anyone about this until they died.”
Rāfīḍhī: Who is better, Fāṭimah the daughter of the Prophet ﷺ or ʿĀʾisha the daughter of Abū Bakr?
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: In the name of Allah,
يس وَالْقُرْآنِ الْحَكِيمِ
“Yā-Sīn, by the Qurʾān, full of wisdom” [Q 36:1-2]
حم وَالْكِتَابِ الْمُبِينِ وَالْقُرْآنِ الْحَكِيمِ
“Ḥā-Mīm, by the manifest Book that makes things clear.” [Q 44:1-2]
Rāfīḍhī: I am asking you which of the two are better and you are reciting Qurʾān to me?
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: ʿĀʾisha – the daughter of Abū Bakr, is the wife of the Prophet, and she will be with him in Paradise. And Fāṭimah is the daughter of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, and she is the leader of the women in Paradise. Allah has cursed those who speak ill of the wife of the Prophet and Allah has abandoned the one who has hatred for the daughter of the Prophet.
Rāfīḍhī: ʿĀʾisha fought ʿAlī , and she is the wife of the Messenger ﷺ!
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: Yes, and woe to you, Allah ﷻ has said;
وَمَا كَانَ لَكُمْ أَن تُؤْذُوا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ
“And it is not [conceivable or lawful] for you to harm the Messenger of Allah.” [Q 33:53]
Rāfīḍhī: Has the caliphate of Abū Bakr, ʿUmar, ʿUthmān and ʿAlī been mentioned in the Qurʾān?
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: Yes, and it has been mentioned in the Torah and the Bible. Allah ﷻ said;
وَهُوَ الَّذِي جَعَلَكُمْ خَلَائِفَ الْأَرْضِ وَرَفَعَ بَعْضَكُمْ فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ دَرَجَاتٍ لِّيَبْلُوَكُمْ فِي مَا آتَاكُمْ ۗ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ سَرِيعُ الْعِقَابِ وَإِنَّهُ لَغَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
“And it is He who has made you successors upon the earth and has raised some of you above others in degrees [of rank]” [Q 6:165]
and He also said;
أَمَّن يُجِيبُ الْمُضْطَرَّ إِذَا دَعَاهُ وَيَكْشِفُ السُّوءَ وَيَجْعَلُكُمْ خُلَفَاءَ الْأَرْضِ ۗ
“Is not He [better than your gods] who responds to the distressed one when he calls upon Him and removes evil and makes you inheritors of the earth?” [Q 27:62]
and he said;
وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِينَهُمُ الَّذِي ارْتَضَىٰ لَهُمْ
“Allah has promised those who have believed among you and done righteous deeds that He will surely grant them succession [to authority] upon the earth just as He granted it to those before them and that He will surely establish for them [therein] their religion which He has preferred for them.” [Q 24:55]
Rāfīḍhī: Son of the Messenger of Allah, where has the caliphate been mentioned in the Torah and Bible?
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: Allah ﷻ said;
مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ
“Muḥammad is the Messenger of Allah, and those who are with him” – meaning Abū Bakr,
وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ
“and those with him are severe against the disbelievers” – meaning ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭāb,
“Merciful among themselves” – that is ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān,
تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا
“You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking bounty from Allah and [His] pleasure.” – That is ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib.
سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ
“Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration.” – They are the companions of the chosen Prophet. Muḥammad.
ذَٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنجِيلِ
“That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Gospel…” [Q 48:29]
Rāfīḍhī: What does “That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Gospel” mean? Muḥammad is the Messenger of Allah and the Caliphs after him, Abū Bakr, ʿUmar, ʿUthmān and ʿAlī; then they fought him.
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: Woe to you! Allah ﷻ has said;
كَزَرۡعٍ أَخۡرَجَ شَطۡـَٔهُ ۥ فَـَٔازَرَهُ ۥ فَٱسۡتَغۡلَظَ فَٱسۡتَوَىٰ عَلَىٰ سُوقِهِۦ يُعۡجِبُ ٱلزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِہِمُ ٱلۡكُفَّارَۗ وَعَدَ ٱللَّهُ ٱلَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ وَعَمِلُواْ ٱلصَّـٰلِحَـٰتِ مِنۡہُم مَّغۡفِرَةً۬ وَأَجۡرًا عَظِيمَۢا
“But their description in the Injīl (Gospel) is like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, and becomes thick, and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. Allah has promised those among them who believe (i.e. all those who follow Islāmic Monotheism, the religion of Prophet Muhammad till the Day of Resurrection) and do righteous good deeds, forgiveness and a mighty reward (i.e. Paradise).” [Q 48:29]
“Like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot” meaning Abū Bakr, “then makes it strong, it then becomes thick” meaning ʿUmar, “and it stands straight on its stem delighting the sowers” meaning ʿUthmān; “so that Allah may enrage by them the disbelievers” meaning ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, “Allah has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward.” Meaning the Companions of the Messenger – may Allah be pleased with them all.
Woe to you! My father informed me from my grandfather, from ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib that the Prophet ﷺ said; “Without boasting, I will be the first one for whom the earth will be split open. Allah will bestow upon me from his generosity that which he has not given to any Prophet before me. Then it will be said; ‘Bring close the Caliphs that came after you.’ I would ask; ‘Lord, who are the Caliphs?’ It will be said ‘ʿAbdullah ibn ʿUthmān [Abū Quḥāfa] – Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīq.’ So the first one for whom the earth will be split open after me will be Abū Bakr. He will stand in front of Allah and will have a swift and easy reckoning. He then will be made to stand in front of the Throne, draped in two green garments. Then the caller will ask, ‘Where is ʿUmar?’ So ʿUmar will come with blood flowing from his veins. It will be asked ‘Who did this to you?’ To which he will reply, ‘ʿAbd al-Mughīrah ibn Shuʿbah.’ He will stand in front of Allah and will have a swift and easy reckoning. Then he will be made to stand in front of the Throne, draped in two green garments. Then ʿUthmān will come with blood dripping from his veins. It will be asked, ‘Who did this to you?’ To which he will reply; ‘So and so.’ He will stand in front of Allah and will have a swift and easy reckoning. He then will be made to stand in front of the Throne, draped in two green garments. Then ʿAlī will come with blood dripping from his veins. It will be asked, ‘Who did this to you?’ To which he will reply; ‘ʿAbd al-Raḥmān ibn Muljam.’ He will stand in front of Allah and will have a swift and easy reckoning. He then will be made to stand in front of the Throne, draped in two green garments”.
Rāfīḍhī: O’ son of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ , is this related in the Qurʾān?
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: Yes! Allah ﷻ said;
وَجِيءَ بِالنَّبِيِّينَ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَقُضِيَ بَيْنَهُم بِالْحَقِّ وَهُمْ لَا يُظْلَمُونَ
“…and the prophets and the witnesses will be brought, and it will be judged between them in truth, and they will not be wronged.” [Q 39:69] – meaning, Abū Bakr, ʿUmar, ʿUthmān and ʿAlī.
Rāfīḍhī: O’ son of the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, would Allah accept my repentance from what I was upon of distinguishing between Abū Bakr, ʿUmar, ʿUthmān and ʿAlī?
Jaʿfar al-Ṣādiq: Yes, the door to repentance is open. Increase in seeking Allah’s forgiveness for them. For if you die whilst you are in opposition to them, you would surely die upon something other than the natural disposition of Islam, and your account would be like scattered dust.
1 – al-Bukhārī (no.2704) narrated that Abū Bakrah said: I saw the Messenger of Allah on the minbar, with al-Ḥasan ibn ʿAlī beside him, and he turned to the people every so often and turned to al-Ḥasan every so often, and said: “This son of mine will be a leader, and perhaps Allah will bring about reconciliation through him between two great groups of Muslims.”
3 – al-Ḥasan said: Allah knew that a group of people would apostatize after the death of their Prophet, so He mentioned that he will send people that love Allah and He loves them. Some people differed as to who these people are; ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, al-Ḥasan and Qatādah all said that they are Abū Bakr and his companions who fought those apostates who refused to pay the zakāt which was right after the Prophet ﷺ had died. A group of the general folk from the Arabs apostated except a group of people from Madinah, Makkah and Bahrain from the clan of ʿAbd al-Qays who refused to pay the zakāt. Abū Bakr decided to fight them, however the thought of this did not sit well with the Companions; ʿUmar said, “How can you fight a people when the Prophet has said: ‘I have been ordered to kill the people until they testify that there is no god except Allah, and that Muḥammad is the Messenger of Allah ﷺ, if they do that, their lives and property will be sacred to us except for Islamic laws and then their reckoning will be with Allah’?” To which Abū Bakr replied, “I will certainly fight anyone who makes a distinction between [the obligation] of the prayer and zakāt, for zakāt is the due right to be paid upon wealth. By Allah, if they were to refuse to pay a she-goat which they paid to the Messenger of Allah [in zakāt], I will fight them for refusing to pay it.” [Tafsīr al-Baghawī]
4 – Ibn ʿUmar said that once Abū Bakr was wearing a cloak torn at the upper end exposing his chest whilst he sat with the Prophet ﷺ. Jibrīl came to the Prophet and inquired as to why Abū Bakr’s cloak was torn? The Prophet ﷺ said: “O’ Jibrīl, Abū Bakr has spent all his wealth on me before the conquest of Makkah.” Jibrīl replied: “O’ Messenger of Allah, convey Allah’s Salām to Abū Bakr and ask if he is happy or unhappy on his faqr i.e. material poverty with Allah?” When the Prophet asked Abū Bakr, he began to cry and said: “Me, unhappy with my Lord? No! I am happy with Him.” [Asbāb al-Nuzūl, p. 303. Hilyat al-Awlīyā 105:7]
5 – al-Kalbī said: “This verse was revealed about Abū Bakr and within it is clear proof of the superiority and precedence of Abū Bakr since he was the first to embrace Islam.” Ibn Masʿūd said; “The first to openly profess Islam with his sword was the Prophet ﷺ and Abū Bakr because he was the first to spend in charity upon the Prophet.” Ibn ʿUmar said, “I was with the Prophet ﷺ and Abū Bakr who was wearing a cloak torn at the upper end exposing his chest, so Jibrīl came down and said: ‘O’ Prophet of Allah, why is Abū Bakr wearing a cloak torn at the upper end exposing his chest?’ He said: ‘O’ Jibrīl, he has spent all his wealth before the conquest [of Makkah]!’ He said: ‘In that case, Allah has said that you should convey to him His greetings of peace, glorified and exalted is He, and tell him that your Lord asks are you pleased with Me in your state of poverty, or are you indignant?’ The Prophet ﷺ addressed Abū Bakr: ‘O’ Abū Bakr, Jibrīl is here to convey the greetings of peace from Allah and He is asking are you pleased with Him in your state of poverty or are you indignant?’ Abū Bakr said: ‘How can I be indignant with my Lord? I am pleased with my Lord! I am pleased with my Lord! I am pleased with my Lord!’ The Prophet ﷺ said; ‘Allah is certainly pleased with you just as you are pleased with him.’ Abū Bakr began to weep to which Jibrīl said; ‘By the One who has sent you with the Truth, O’ Muḥammad, [….]’ and due to this the Companions would give Abū Bakr precedence over themselves.” [Tafsīr al-Qurṭubī]